Cardiology / Vascular Invasive Procedures

Cardiac Catheterization

Is a diagnostic test where a thin plastic catheter (tube) is inserted into the artery or vein (usually at the groin but can be in the wrist) and is used to measure oxygen content, pressure, and blood flow inside the heart. This tube is then used to inject dye into arteries so that X-ray pictures can be performed(Angiography).

Coronary Angiography

As part of a cardiac catheterization, angiography of the arteries supplying the heart muscle is performed. This reveals any narrowing or blockages.

Coronary Angioplasty

Once a narrowing or blockage in a coronary artery is detected, a tiny balloon is advanced to the stenosis to “push the plaque” to the sides and opens the vessel, increasing blood flow.  This is done prior to stenting or when stenting is not possible.

Transesophageal Echocardiography

This is an ultra-high quality ultrasound study of the heart which is performed as an outpatient. You are given sedation and a flexible probe is positioned in the esophagus (the food pipe between the mouth and the stomach) just in the back of the heart. Agitated saline may be injected to see if there are bubbles that pass through which could indicate a hole.  The TEE is also used to examine the atria to determine if a thrombus is present.


An outpatient procedure that uses electricity or medications to “shock” or convert an abnormal heart rhythm back to a normal.

Aortogram with Runoffs

Is a diagnostic test similar to a heart catheterization only looking at the vascular anatomy that feed the lower extremities from the abdominal aorta to the feet.

Peripheral Stents

If a blockage is noted on an angiogram, stents can be placed in the lower and upper extremities to increase the flow.

Renal Angiogram/Stenting

Is a diagnostic test done on an outpatient basis that examines the renal arteries looking for stenosis. If a blockage is found a balloon can be used to open the blockage and a stent can then be placed.

Carotid Stenting

Stents placed in the carotid arteries to increase the blood flow.  This is a very selective procedure and the patient has to meet the criteria to have this performed.  Traditionally this is a surgical intervention.

Intravascular Ultrasound

This is performed with an ultrasound machine that has been adapted to create images of the coronary arteries from the inside out. A tiny ultrasound camera sits on top of a flexible, long, thin tube (catheter) and provides detailed pictures to clearly identify areas of plaque or blockage.

IVC Filter Placement and Retrieval

Placement of a filter in the inferior vena cava which prevents clots from to the lung in case of a deep vein thrombosis.  Retrieval is also performed when necessary.

Endovenous Laser Therapy

The use of a laser to treat varicose veins. This procedure is done in the office.


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